Butterflies are charismatic insects that fascinate many Sri Lankans. In Sri Lanka, there are 247 butterfly species, belonging to five families – 20 of them are endemic species. The highest species richness is in the foothills, but the highest abundance of butterflies is in the dry zone. The ecology and distribution of butterflies is determined by the climate, topography and vegetation. The conservation and maintenance of larval host plants is important to ensure their future survival. As butterflies are very sensitive to environmental changes, they are a biological measure of environmental quality. Overuse of pesticides, disappearing habitat and air pollution are major concerns in butterfly conservation in Sri Lanka.